Networks of protected areas (PAs) remain the single most dominant approach for conserving biodiversity in the tropics (Brunei et al. 2001). In Tanzania, PAs occupy about 24% of the country's land cover (VVPT 2007). Generally, PAs have done a good job of sustaining much of the existing wildlife populations.
However, the effectiveness of these areas is increasingly being questioned because of the following factors: (1) establishment of most PAs ignored species spatial dynamics and human encroachment (Gaston et al. 2006); (2) PAs exist as habitat patches with human settlements between them (Groom et al. 2006); and (3) growing human population and ensuing pressure on PAs (Groom et al. 2006:-. These issues create challenges for both wildlife and conservationists, and the latter has recently realized that eviction of the human population, as an approach for land conservation, comes with huge social costs and therefore is unfeasible.