Wildlife is one of Tanzania’s most valuable natural resources. Wildlife produces important economic activity through tourism activities as well as providing food for millions of people. The new National Strategy for Growth and the Reduction of Poverty highlights wildlife as an important resource for local economic opportunities and benefits. The sustainable management of Tanzania’s wildlife is therefore, as President Nyerere observed over forty years ago, is a matter of great importance to the country.
The wildlife management system in Tanzania as provided for by the Wildlife Conservation Act of 1974 is being changed. The Wildlife Conservation Act No. 12, 1974 has been the main legislation responsible for regulating wildlife outside of National Parks and Ngorongoro Conservation Area for the past thirty years. The areas governed by the Wildlife Conservation Act include Game Reserves, where human settlement and utilization is prohibited, and Game Controlled Areas (GCAs) where human habitation coexists with wildlife conservation, as well as all the wildlife found outside of any type of protected area.